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Lesson Plans

These lesson plans are freely available for your use.
Each plan includes the National Geographic Standard (NCGE) as well as an individual state's standard (if available).

Locate the Country

Grade
Subject Map
Lesson Plan Description
Download
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of Central Asia
Locate the Countries of Central Asia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of East Asia
Locate the Countries of East Asia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of Asia
Locate the Countries of Asia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of Africa
Locate the Countries of Africa
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of the Caribbean Region
Locate the Countries of the Caribbean Region
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of Central America
Locate the Countries of Central America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of North America
Locate the Countries of North America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of South America
Locate the Countries of South America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of the South Pacific
Locate the Countries of the South Pacific
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Countries of Western Europe
Locate the Countries of Western Europe
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn country names and country locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

Locate the Capital of the Country

Grade
Subject Map
Lesson Plan Description
Download
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of Central Asia
Locate the Capital Cities of Central Asia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of East Asia
Locate the Capital Cities of East Asia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of Africa
Locate the Capital Cities of Africa
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of Asia
Locate the Capital Cities of Asia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of the Caribbean
Locate the Capital Cities of the Caribbean
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of Central America
Locate the Capital Cities of Central America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of North America
Locate the Capital Cities of North America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of South America
Locate the Capital Cities of South America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of the South Pacific
Locate the Capital Cities of the South Pacific
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Capital Cities of Western Europe
Locate the Capital Cities of Western Europe
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn capital city names and capital city locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

Locate the State/Province of a Country

Grade
Subject Map
Lesson Plan Description
Download
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of Iraq
Locate the Provinces of Iraq
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of Australia
Locate the Provinces of Australia
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of Canada
Locate the Provinces of Canada
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of Afghanistan
Locate the Provinces of Afghanistan
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the States of Brazil
Locate the States of Brazil
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn state names and state locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of China
Locate the Provinces of China
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the States of Germany
Locate the States of Germany
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn state names and state locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Regions of Spain
Locate the Regions of Spain
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn region names and region locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Regions of France
Locate the Regions of France
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn region names and region locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Prefectures of Japan
Locate the Prefectures of Japan
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn prefecture names and prefecture locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of New Zealand
Locate the Provinces of New Zealand
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces and Territories of Pakistan
Locate the Provinces and Territories of Pakistan
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the States of India
Locate the States of India
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn state names and state locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of Iran
Locate the Provinces of Iran
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the States of Mexico
Locate the States of Mexico
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn state names and state locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Regions of Russia
Locate the Regions of Russia
Class Time: 2 hours, or 3 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn region names and region locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the States of the United States of America
Locate the States of the United States of America
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn state names and state locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Regions of Italy
Locate the Regions of Italy
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn region names and region locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
4-12
image: Locate the Provinces of South Africa
Locate the Provinces of South Africa
Class Time: 1 hour, or 2 hours with extensions
Purpose: To learn province names and province locations.
Author: Tod Fletcher, World Trade Press
State Standards Included For: Indiana SS
National Geography Standards (NCGE) Addressed:
  • NCGE1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
  • NCGE3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
  • NCGE18: How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

The National Geography Standards

The first ever national geography standards were developed in response to the "Goals 2000: Educate America Act." under the sponsorship of the four major geography organizations: the American Geographical Society, the Association of American Geographers, the National Council for Geographic Education, and the Committee on Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. They were published in 1994, These geography standards are benchmarks against which the content of geography courses can be measured. They are being voluntarily adopted around the United States.

The Six Essential Elements And The Eighteen National Standards

The Geography Standards Framework consists of two levels. At the first level, the subject matter of geography is divided into six essential elements. At the second level, each essential element contains a number of geography standards applicable to a set of related ideas and approaches to the subject matter of geography.

The geographically informed person knows and understands...

Essential Element I.
THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS
  • Standard 1. How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
  • Standard 2. How to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
  • Standard 3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.
Essential Element II.
PLACES AND REGIONS
  • Standard 4. The physical and human characteristics of places.
  • Standard 5. That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.
  • Standard 6. How culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.
Essential Element III.
PHYSICAL SYSTEMS
  • Standard 7. The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.
  • Standard 8. The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface
Essential Element IV.
HUMAN SYSTEMS
  • Standard 9. The characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.
  • Standard 10. The characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.
  • Standard 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.
  • Standard 12. The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement.
  • Standard 13. How the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface
Essential Element V.
ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY
  • Standard 14. How human actions modify the physical environment.
  • Standard 15. How physical systems affect human systems.
  • Standard 16. The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.
Essential Element VI.
THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY
  • Standard 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past.
  • Standard 18. How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

Citation: National Geography Standards, Geography Education Standards Project. 1994. Geography for Life: The National Geography Standards. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society Committee on Research and Exploration. This publication is available at the National Council for Geographic Education.

World Trade Press

World Trade Press is a publishing and information products company dedicated to providing reliable, up-to-date digital media essential for researchers, educators, travelers, and logistics and international trade professionals. These products draw from our Global Knowledgebase of digital reference information, which complements our printed offerings that include maps, books, and atlases.

World Trade Press' philosophy is that we can strengthen mutual understanding across cultures by lowering the information barriers that prevent individuals and organizations from succeeding in the international arena. This outlook originates with the company's founder, Edward G. Hinkelman, an author and economist (Tufts University, University of Paris 'Sorbonne) whose career in the export-import business spanned more than 30 years and took him to 67 countries.

Realizing the need for accurate international trade publications, Mr. Hinkelman founded World Trade Press in 1993. The company has since expanded to meet the needs of libraries, universities, businesses, and many other types of organizations. A passion for high-quality, comprehensive products drives the company and our staff, which works with an international team of writers and topic experts to create content unsurpassed in the fields of culture, travel, language, trade, business, logistics, security, and communications

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Email: dallas@worldtradepress.com
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APL Sales Manager
Email: aweis@worldtradepress.com
Tel: [1] 800-833-8586 x201 (toll-free, US only)
Tel: [1] 707-774-7401 (direct)

Alex Gardner
Sales Representative
Email: alex@worldtradepress.com
Tel: [1] 800-833-8586 x209 (toll-free, US only)
Tel: [1] 707-774-7409 (direct)

Chris Ritter
Sales Representative
Email: chris@worldtradepress.com
Tel: [1] 800-833-8586 x230 (toll-free, US only)
Tel: [1] 707-774-7430 (direct)


International Rights

Edward G. Hinkelman
Publisher/CEO
Email: egh@worldtradepress.com
Tel: [1] 800-833-8586 x204 (toll-free, US only)
Tel: [1] 707-774-7404 (direct)


Bookkeeping and Invoicing

Shannon Frieberg
Accounting
Email: accounting@worldtradepress.com
[1] (707) 774-7403 (direct)
[1] (800) 833-8586 x203 (toll-free, US only)


Copyright Notice

All World Trade Press products, including printed books, electronic content (our websites), maps (printed or digital), databases, software, and educational games are the sole copyright of World Trade Press. Reproduction of any copyrighted World Trade Press content requires a permission to reprint or reuse.

For reproduction of a small number of pages by individuals such as educators, students, academic presses, etc., please contact the Copyright Clearance Center at www.copyright.com and click on "Licensing Services" at the upper left part of the screen.

Since its founding 22 years ago, World Trade Press has been a leading authority on the topics of international trade, international travel, and world cultures. The majority of our content (about 85 percent) is proprietary to World Trade Press. It is the result of collaboration between our in-house editorial staff and an international team of writers and topic experts, who are recruited based on their research skill and first-hand knowledge of a given topic. Where applicable, an attribution at the end of an article credits the writer or researcher. An attribution is considered impractical when many individuals contribute over time to the initial creation and subsequent updates of a single article. See below for profiles of our current in-house editorial staff and international writing team.

A portion of our content (about 15 percent) comes from reliable public domain sources or is reproduced with permission from top-tier international organizations. Reproducing this material in the same products with our proprietary content serves our clients by uniting valuable information in one accessible location. The sources for this information are listed on each applicable page.

Management

Edward G. Hinkelman is an international economist with degrees from Tufts University and the University of Paris, and is the CEO/Publisher of World Trade Press. Mr. Hinkelman has more than 30 years' experience as an importer and exporter, and has traveled to and done business in more than 80 countries. He is the author of the industry standard Dictionary of International Trade, now in its eleventh edition. Mr. Hinkelman has been a member of the National District Export Council and a visiting lecturer on trade-related subjects at the University of Michigan, Tufts University, San Francisco State University, numerous TEC (The Executive Committee, now known as Vistage) meetings, and other industry programs and seminars.


Elizabeth Freitas is the Senior Manager of linguistic resources at World Trade Press. She double-majored in English and German at Hillsdale College, then earned a CELTA from St. Giles College and a teaching credential from Sonoma State University. She is conversant in Dutch, German, Spanish, and Portuguese. Her travels have brought her through Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Central America, including a stint living and teaching English in Cairo.


Hope Kang is the Senior Manager of Editorial Development at World Trade Press. She earned her BA in Spanish language and literature at the University of Maryland, College Park. She has worked as a copywriter and editor for Motorola, as a technical line editor for Free World U, and as an editor in the graphics department at NASA. For United Healthcare, she authored articles on mental health, parenting, and elder care. Conversant in French and Spanish, Hope Kang has lived in Spain, and her favorite travel destinations include Roskilde, Denmark; Glasgow, Scotland; and Israel.

Editors

Brian Arnell is a publishing professional with 14 years' experience in editorial, product development, and management roles for several digital information companies. A US native, he has spent much of his adult life abroad, including residencies in the UK and Australia and travel and research in Africa, Europe, and the Pacific. He holds a master's degree in international relations from the London School of Economics and a master's degree in publishing and communications from the University of Melbourne.


Dorine Jennette holds a PhD in English from the University of Georgia. She has edited creative and scholarly works for the University of Georgia Press, the University of Pittsburgh Press, and the Fordham University Press. She is an editor of the American Poetry Journal, and has previously held editorial positions with Puerto del Sol and the Georgia Review. Dorine Jennette is the author of Urchin to Follow; her poetry and prose have appeared in journals such as Verse Daily, the Journal, Ninth Letter, Coconut, and the New Orleans Review. Her travels abroad include trips to Mexico, Italy, and Costa Rica.


Jennifer Goheen earned her BA with honors in Russian language and literature from Oberlin College, and her MA in English from San Francisco State University. Her love of language is intimately connected with her love of travel. Fluent in Russian, French, and German, she has translated works from French and Russian into English. She has edited in subject areas and material categories ranging from engineering, education, and history to narratives, advertisements, cover blurbs, and company profiles. Among her favorite travel destinations are Sète, France; Skara Brae, Scotland; Emeishan and the Great Buddha of Le Shan in Sichuan, China; and the Bristlecone Pine Forest of California, USA.


Nina Bellucci has editorial experience in the fields of international business, urban planning and architecture, and the law. She holds a bachelor's degree from Vassar College in political science, and a master's degree from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. Some of her favorite travel destinations include Spain and the UK.

Editorial Assistants:

Caitlin Phillips
Emilie Hechanova
Graham Bates
Jennifer Kern
Jennifer Shannon
Jo Ann Gleason
Joanna Lamstein
Kathleen Escamilla
KC Moore
Kristen Johnson
Lisana De la Torre
Madison Cobos
Miranda Jilka
Olivia Powers
Rachel Rapp
Samantha Stronge
Maggie Ryan
Simone Yingst
Rykkee D. Owen
Emily Poore
Andrew Ward Rathkopf
Jessica Rose
Laura Anne Tupper
Mimi Yuen
Deanna S. Colombo
J. Haley Campbell
Dawn Carroll
Dimitri Nicholson
Kalie Kreischer

Contributing Writers

A. Cotham earned her bachelor's degree in English literature from the University of California, Berkeley. She has written and edited materials for publications such as Sacramento Magazine and Solano Magazine, and for organizations such as the University of California health care system. Based in Sacramento, California, A. Cotham currently concentrates on travel writing, environmental writing, and technical editing.


Alex Colgan is a freelance writer and editor from Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. He holds an undergraduate degree in English and political science from St. Mary's University in Halifax, and is completing a master's program in social and political thought from the University of Regina. He writes mainly as an Internet copywriter and content developer, and has also written articles for local and national magazines, including This magazine. Alex is also the current editor of Coastal Life magazine.


Born in Ogden, Utah, Anthon Jackson has written professionally since 2008. In 20 years abroad, he has traveled to 60 countries. In addition to World Trade Press, Anthon has written for Rough Guides, USA Today, Trails, and Travels, while documenting a range of journeys, from Adventure Journey's "20,000 Miles in Asia" to the Royal Geographic Society-sponsored "Oxford Danakil Expedition." He holds a bachelor's degree in Middle East studies/Arabic and is based in Aarhus, Denmark.


Dale Myers is a journalist, travel writer, and novelist from Ventura, California. He has a bachelor's degree in journalism from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Dale has been an editor at Marin Scope Newspapers, a senior editor at InfoWorld in San Francisco, and the managing editor of MotorHome magazine. He has traveled extensively in Mexico, Hawaii, and Europe, particularly Italy, and speaks Italian.


Heather Thielen received a bachelor's degree in painting in 2002, then worked in art restoration at a Russian art gallery, where she also wrote articles and managed a website covering Russian art. She moved to Florence, Italy, in 2007, where she learned Italian, worked as a tour guide, and taught English. Heather now lives and works in Southern California.


Jen Westmoreland Bouchard holds a bachelor's degree in French and another in interdisciplinary fine arts from St. Olaf College (Northfield, Minnesota), a Diploma of French Studies from Université de Rennes II (Rennes, France), and a master's degree in French and Francophone Studies from the University of California, Los Angeles. She's been fortunate to travel throughout more than 20 countries on four continents. Jen's work can be found in numerous academic journals, reference books, essay collections, and anthologies published by Liverpool University Press, Pencraft International Press, ABC-CLIO, and Greenwood Press. She is the owner of a freelance writing, editing, and French translation company, www.luciditewriting.com.


Jennifer Williamson is a freelance writer and editor living in New York City. She holds a bachelor's degree in English from St. Lawrence University. Jennifer owns a mobile freelance business, and has traveled and worked in many areas of the world, including the Netherlands, Crete, the UK, France, Belgium, and Kenya. She writes website copy, brochures, e-mail marketing messages, and other marketing collateral—and has helped clients from countries as diverse as China, the UK, France, and South Africa adapt their marketing messages to an American audience. You can see more of her work at catalystwriters.com.


Jessica Kirby holds a bachelor's degree from Vancouver Island University. A double major, she focused her creative writing program on creative nonfiction and journalism; in anthropology, she focused on peace and conflict studies and the Middle East. She has completed original research exploring how journalism is represented cross-culturally, and wrote a series of biographies capturing the stories of people who have survived violent conflict in different geographical and cultural areas. Jessica has worked as a freelance and in-house editor and writer for more than 15 years, covering business, arts and culture, construction, architecture, sustainable living, and cross-cultural studies in magazines, books, and professional journals published across North America. Jessica is from Ontario, Canada, but has called beautiful Vancouver Island home since 1998.


John E. Roper was born and raised in Oklahoma, and has spent most of his adult life overseas. In addition to visiting many countries, he has lived in Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Japan, and Italy. While earning a bachelor's degree in English from the University of Central Oklahoma, John began working as a freelance writer. He has written for several print publications, including the Daily Oklahoman and the Arizona Republic, as well as for a wide range of digital platforms, such as USAToday.com, Hotels.com, Salon.com, and Trails.com. He currently writes reviews for The US Review of Books and Breakpoint.org. John's three-act play When I Was Five has been performed on three continents.


Kerrie Main is a writer, editor, and traveler. She holds a bachelor's degree in English and Spanish from Southwest Texas State University, and her work experience spans a number of roles and industries. Beginning her career as an advertising copywriter, she later created and managed an online community for an international meeting planning association.


Libby Zay is a Baltimore-based writer with a bachelor's degree from The Ohio State University in popular culture studies and women's studies. She has contributed to three Latin American guidebooks for V!VA Travel Guides, helped launch mobile travel apps for EveryTrail and TripAdvisor, spent two years writing news stories for AOL Travel, and worked as a guide for City's Best. Follow her adventures at the Huffington Post travel site, Gadling.


Ocean Malandra is a freelance travel writer who divides his time between Northern California and South America. After studying broadcast journalism at the City College of San Francisco, he majored in English at Portland State University. Ocean is currently the guide to San Francisco Travel on About.com, has contributed to several Viva Travel Guidebooks, and has written for many different travel-related sites, including USA Today's Travel Tips and Trails.com. He is also a health researcher and writer and runs several blogs related to natural health.


Paul Giess has a doctorate from the University of London and is a former lecturer in the environmental sciences. His research considered the environmental impact of emissions from the UK nuclear program and was funded by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Paul has written widely on environmental issues and the public understanding of science. For many years he produced a topical science column for the Express & Star, the UK's most widely circulated regional newspaper. Currently living in Cape Town, South Africa, Paul has extensive travel experience in both Europe and Africa, and contributes to numerous travel websites and blogs. He also continues to write for selected publications in the UK and Africa, as well as providing academic proofreading for clients in Asia.


Simon Hodgson was born in Scotland and now lives in San Francisco with his wife and son. After completing a master's degree program in history from Edinburgh University, Simon got his first job as a staff writer on an IT business newswire. He's also been a television listings editor, a housing magazine editor, and a freelance writer, writing about travel, business, education, movies, and art. Simon is currently the editorial director of Daily Secret, an international subscriber service that tells people about amazing things in cities across five continents. He has traveled widely across Western Europe, and spent time in Montenegro, Lithuania, Borneo, Georgia, and Kashmir.


Tom Sykes holds a bachelor's degree (Hons) in English and American literature from the University of East Anglia (UK), a program that included a semester of study at the London School of Economics. He is now studying for a doctorate at Goldsmiths College, University of London, focusing on Southeast Asian travel literature. Tom has published travel journalism in the London Daily Telegraph, the London Magazine, the Bristol Review of Books, the Philippine Free Press, and various in-flight magazines. He is the co-editor of 4 travel anthologies that have sold 20,000 copies. The first, No Such Thing as a Free Ride? was published by Cassell Illustrated and serialized in the London Times. Tom has traveled extensively in Asia and Europe. Learn more about him at www.tomgsykes.co.uk.


Darrin McGraw previously served as the Writing Director for the Culture, Art and Technology program at the University of California, San Diego. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Stanford and a Ph.D. from UCLA. He has skied through the middle of town in northern Sweden, dodged bicycles in China, run from hungry baboons in South Africa, and crashed an archaeological dig in Israel. His fiction includes the novels in the Animal Future science fiction series — learn more at darrinmcgraw.com.


Law Firms

ACZALAW Guatemala, S.A. has provided corporate law services since 2000. The firm's partners have broad experience in foreign investment counsel in the following areas: business law with an emphasis in mergers and acquisitions (M&A), labor law with an emphasis in treating labor matters and M&A, and tax law with an emphasis in M&A, with specialty in foreign investment regarding restructuring business (franchises, mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, licenses, representation and distribution agreements and project finance); purchase and sale of assets of any nature.


Lidings is a leading Russian law firm, dedicated to advising foreign companies on all aspects of Russian law. Founded in 2006 and initially specializing in real estate, corporate and commercial law, and arbitration and litigation, the firm's offices in Moscow and St. Petersburg now comprise more than 20 lawyers providing specialist advice across nine dedicated practice areas.The professionalism of Lidings' lawyers, the quality of their work, and their commitment to client service are regularly acknowledged by international rating agencies as well as the firm's clients. The international directory Legal 500 recognized Lidings as "a firm working to international standards," and acknowledged its niche position in advising foreign companies investing in Russia. Lidings is a member of the International Lawyers Network, an association of 91 high-quality, full-service law firms from 66 countries, comprising more than 5,000 lawyers worldwide.
  


Based in Tel Aviv, Israel, the Moshe Kahn Law Firm is a specialist law firm providing a full range of legal services in most areas of business law. We provide representation in sophisticated corporate, commercial, and real estate transactions and in complex commercial litigation and dispute resolution proceedings. Over the years, the Moshe Kahn Law Firm has gained significant experience providing services to many leading international and local companies. We have extensive international expertise representing foreign clients in Israel as well as local companies abroad, and in dealing with cross-border transactions. Our clientele consists of both large and small firms, from start-ups to leading international corporations, in a broad range of industries. Our solid expertise and experience combined with our individual approach ensure that our clients enjoy superior, results-oriented legal solutions provided with personal attention. Our attorneys are ready to assist you in all areas of business, corporate, and commercial law.

Organizations

Ernst & Young (web: www.ey.com) is one of the largest professional service firms in the world. Ernst & Young Global Limited is an international organization of independent member firms in more than 140 countries worldwide. Although the firm is best known to the general public for its tax and audit services, it also provides advisory and consulting services related to risk management, assurance, corporate development and transactions, and strategic growth.


World Bank (web: www.worldbank.org) is an integrated group of international institutions that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries. The World Bank Group consists of five organizations:

  • The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) lends to governments of middle-income and creditworthy low-income countries.
  • The International Development Association (IDA) provides interest-free loans—called credits— and grants to governments of the poorest countries.
  • The International Finance Corporation (IFC) provides loans, equity, and technical assistance to stimulate private sector investment in developing countries.
  • The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) provides guarantees against losses caused by non-commercial risks to investors in developing countries.
  • The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) provides international facilities for conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes.


The World Trade Organization (WTO) (web: www.wto.org) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The WTO provides a forum for reducing obstacles to international trade and ensuring a level playing field for all, thus contributing to economic growth and development. At the organization's heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.